Barbados-born Archer, who made a huge impact in England’s triumphant World Cup campaign, taking 20 wickets, is yet to play a test and has been suffering with a side strain.
Fellow paceman Olly Stone also misses out as does Sam Curran from the original 14-man squad.
Record test wicket taker James Anderson returns after recovering from a calf strain and will lead the attack with usual strike partner Stuart Broad.
All-rounder Ben Stokes is back to bolster the batting and bowling units after being rested for the Ireland match while Moeen Ali is the specialist spinner.
While England’s bowling has a familiar look, the top order batting remains a worry with openers Rory Burns, Jason Roy and Joe Denly, who has dropped down to number four to allow Root to come in at three, having only 11 test caps between them.
Root says his elevation to a spot he has previously been reluctant to occupy was entirely his decision.
The return to the side of Jos Buttler to the middle order means wicketkeeper Jonny Bairstow, who made a pair against Ireland, drops down to seven.